Anaphora (from the Greek for ‘a carrying back’) is used in linguistics to describe the process of referring to information already given in an earlier clause or sentence. In the example below, the writer exploits anaphoric reference for comic effect:
The English country gentleman galloping after a fox—the unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable. (Oscar Wilde)
Anaphora is in contrast with cataphora, which refers forward:
There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about. (Oscar Wilde) Both are instances of deixis, the more general term for language used to point to something in context, whether that context is linguistic or situational.

By: Brenda Townsend Hall

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